The last century has seen a huge transformation in how we travel. Technological advances mean that we can fly long distances in half the time it took fifty years ago and we now commute by train, boat, car and coach in relative comfort and safety.
This section looks at the development and fire safety issues of modern day transport, highlighting the application of flame retardants for the construction and comfort of passenger travel.
This has largely been made possible thanks to the emergence of new, lighter and technologically advanced materials such as carbon and glass fibres, composite materials and aluminium, as well as malleable, resistant and easily workable plastics, foams and new types of textiles.
These materials have particular properties which not only make them ideally suited for modern functions, but are also highly adaptable and economical. As a result, they are increasingly used in the mechanical, structural and decorative parts of our transport systems.
Overview of classification and regulatory status for FRs used in transport.
NB: This table covers the flame retardant substances most commonly used in transport applications, though it is not exhaustive. (Efra - January 2015)
|Substance Name||Abbreviation (commonly used)||CAS No||Classification||Regulatory status||Sector(s)|
|Aluminium diethyl phosphinate||225789-38-8||Pre-registered||Railway|
|Ammonium polyphosphate||APP||68333-79-9||Pre-registered||Automotive, Railway, Marine|
|Aluminium trihydroxide||ATH||21645-51-2||Not classified||REACH registered||Aerospace, Automotive, Railway, Marine|
|Brominated polystyrene||BPS||88497-56-7||Not classified||Monomers REACH registered||Automotive|
|Butylated triphenyl phosphate||tBuTPP||68937-40-6||If Triphenyl phosphate amount is over 10%:
substance classified as Aquatic Acute 1, H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life. Aquatic Chronic 1, H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effectsIf Triphenyl phosphate amount is below 2.5%:
|EBP||84852-53-9||Not classified||REACH registered||Automotive|
|Decabromodiphenyl ether||Deca-BDE||1163-19-5||Not classified||REACH registered; listed in the Candidate List of substances of very high concern (SVHC); subject to a restriction proposal by ECHA (ongoing)||Automotive, Aerospace|
|Dihydro-oxa-phosphaphenanthrene-oxide||DOPO||35948-25-5||H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction.||REACH registered||Aerospace|
|Ethylene 1,2 bis(tetrabromophthalimide)||EBTBP||32588-76-4||Not classified||REACH registered||Automotive|
|2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate||EHDP||1241-94-7||Not classified||REACH registered||Automotive|
|Expandable graphite||7782-42-5||Not classified||REACH registered||Aerospace|
|Hexabromocyclododecane||HBCD||134237-51-7||Rep. 2 H361, Lact. H362, Aquatic Acute 1, H400, Aquatic Chronic 1, H410||REACH registered, Candidate list of SVHCs, REACH Annex XIV under authorisation process||Aerospace, Automotive|
|Isodecyl diphenyl phosphate||IDPP||29761-21-5||Not classified||REACH registered||Automotive|
|Isopropylated triphenyl phosphate||IPPP||68937-41-7||
If triphenylphosphate ≥ 5%:
Rep 2 H361f,d:
STOT Rep. Exp. 2 H373: May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.
Aquatic chronic 2 H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.
If triphenylphosphate < 5%: Repr. 2H361
STOT Rep. Exp. 2H373: May cause damage to through prolonged or repeated exposure
Aquatic Chronic 4H413: May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life.
|Magnesium hydroxide||MDH||1309-42-8||Not classified||REACH registered||Automotive, Railway, Aerospace|
|Melamine||108-78-1||No classification||Aerospace, Railway|
|Melamine cyanurate||MC||37640-57-6||STOT RE Cat. 2; H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure||REACH registered||Automotive|
|Melamine polyphosphate||MPP||218768-84-4||No classification||Pre-registered||Automotive|
|Resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate)||RDP||57583-54-7||No classification||REACH registered||Marine|
|Tetrabromobisphenol-A||TBBPA||79-94-7||Aquatic Acute 1, H400, Aquatic Chronic 1, H410||REACH registered||Railway, Aerospace, Automotive|
|Tetrabromophthalic anhydride||TBPA||632-79-1||Skin Sens. 1H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction||REACH registered||Marine|
Aquatic Acute 1H400: Very toxic to aquatic life.
Aquatic Chronic 2H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
|Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate||TCPP||13674-84-5||Acute Tox. 4, H302||REACH registered||Railway, Aerospace, Automotive|
|Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate||TDCP||13674-87-8||Carc. Cat. 2,H351,
Aquatic Chronic 2 H411
|REACH registered||Automotive, Railway, Aerospace|
|Tris(tribromoneopentyl) phosphate||TTBP||19186-97-1||Not classified||REACH registered||Marine|
|Zinc borate||ZnB||1332-07-6||REACH registered, Candidate list of SVHC||Railway, Marine|