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The last century has seen a huge transformation in how we travel. Technological advances mean that we can fly long distances in half the time it took fifty years ago and we now commute by train, boat, car and coach in relative comfort and safety.

This section looks at the development and fire safety issues of modern day transport, highlighting the application of flame retardants for the construction and comfort of passenger travel.

This has largely been made possible thanks to the emergence of new, lighter and technologically advanced materials such as carbon and glass fibres, composite materials and aluminium, as well as malleable, resistant and easily workable plastics, foams and new types of textiles.

These materials have particular properties which not only make them ideally suited for modern functions, but are also highly adaptable and economical. As a result, they are increasingly used in the mechanical, structural and decorative parts of our transport systems.

 

Overview of classification and regulatory status for FRs used in transport.

NB: This table covers the flame retardant substances most commonly used in transport applications, though it is not exhaustive.  (Efra - January 2015)

Substance Name Abbreviation (commonly used) CAS No Classification Regulatory status Sector(s)
  Aluminium diethyl phosphinate     225789-38-8      Pre-registered    Railway
Ammonium polyphosphate APP 68333-79-9   Pre-registered Automotive, Railway, Marine
Aluminium trihydroxide ATH 21645-51-2 Not classified REACH registered Aerospace, Automotive, Railway, Marine
Brominated polystyrene BPS 88497-56-7 Not classified Monomers REACH registered Automotive
Butylated triphenyl phosphate tBuTPP 68937-40-6 If Triphenyl phosphate amount is over 10%:

substance classified as Aquatic Acute 1, H400 - Very toxic to aquatic life. Aquatic Chronic 1, H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects

If Triphenyl phosphate amount is below 2.5%:

No classification

REACH Registered Automotive

Ethane bis(pentabromobenzene)

EBP 84852-53-9 Not classified REACH registered Automotive
Decabromodiphenyl ether Deca-BDE 1163-19-5 Not classified REACH registered; listed in the Candidate List of substances of very high concern (SVHC); subject to a restriction proposal by ECHA (ongoing) Automotive, Aerospace
Dihydro-oxa-phosphaphenanthrene-oxide DOPO 35948-25-5 H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction. REACH registered Aerospace
Ethylene 1,2 bis(tetrabromophthalimide) EBTBP 32588-76-4 Not classified REACH registered Automotive
2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate EHDP 1241-94-7 Not classified REACH registered Automotive
Expandable graphite   7782-42-5 Not classified REACH registered Aerospace
Hexabromocyclododecane HBCD 134237-51-7 Rep. 2 H361, Lact. H362, Aquatic Acute 1, H400, Aquatic Chronic 1, H410 REACH registered, Candidate list of SVHCs, REACH Annex XIV under authorisation process Aerospace, Automotive
Isodecyl diphenyl phosphate IDPP 29761-21-5 Not classified REACH registered Automotive
Isopropylated triphenyl phosphate IPPP 68937-41-7

If triphenylphosphate ≥ 5%:

Rep 2 H361f,d:

STOT Rep. Exp. 2 H373: May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.

Aquatic chronic 2 H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.

If triphenylphosphate < 5%: Repr. 2H361

STOT Rep. Exp. 2H373: May cause damage to through prolonged or repeated exposure

Aquatic Chronic 4H413: May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life.

REACH registered Automotive
Magnesium hydroxide MDH 1309-42-8 Not classified REACH registered Automotive, Railway, Aerospace
Melamine   108-78-1 No classification   Aerospace, Railway
Melamine borate   53587-44-3   Pre-registered Aerospace
Melamine cyanurate MC 37640-57-6 STOT RE Cat. 2; H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure REACH registered Automotive
Melamine polyphosphate MPP 218768-84-4 No classification Pre-registered Automotive
Resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) RDP 57583-54-7 No classification REACH registered Marine
Tetrabromobisphenol-A TBBPA 79-94-7 Aquatic Acute 1, H400, Aquatic Chronic 1, H410 REACH registered Railway, Aerospace, Automotive
Tetrabromophthalic anhydride TBPA 632-79-1 Skin Sens. 1H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction REACH registered Marine
Triphenyl phosphate TPP 115-86-6

Aquatic Acute 1H400: Very toxic to aquatic life.

Aquatic Chronic 2H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects

REACH registered Aerospace
Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate TCPP 13674-84-5 Acute Tox. 4, H302 REACH registered Railway, Aerospace, Automotive
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate TDCP 13674-87-8 Carc. Cat. 2,H351,
Aquatic Chronic 2 H411
REACH registered Automotive, Railway, Aerospace
Tris(tribromoneopentyl) phosphate TTBP 19186-97-1 Not classified REACH registered Marine
Zinc borate ZnB 1332-07-6   REACH registered, Candidate list of SVHC Railway, Marine